We’re in the midst of a fundamental shift in leadership - Fast Company

Social psychologists John French and Bertram Raven‘s time-tested framework described five bases of interpersonal power, or the ability to effect change.

Here is the six-element version of the framework:

  1. Legitimate power is inherent in a position, such as a supervisor’s job title. …
  2. Reward power stems from the ability to grant bonuses, raises, promotions, and privileges.
  3. Coercive power relies on the ability to punish via termination, demotion, undesirable scheduling, or unpleasant assignments. …
  4. Referent power is based on our identification with leaders and the intrinsic desire to follow their example.
  5. Expert power stems from our belief that the leader has a deeper understanding of relevant topics and “knows best.”
  6. Informational influence/power goes beyond the expert power by adding an element of learning. … a “socially independent change” which might have been initiated by the leader but continues without the further leadership effort. People may not even remember who was the source of change.